routine maintenance of the audiovisual
ment most frequently used by the Navy.
Audiovisual equipment plays a major role in
the Command Religious Program. Religious
Program Specialists are required to have the
knowledge and expertise to operate this equip-
ment in support of previews of audiovisual
material; projectionist training, and volunteer
teacher training; and assisting with presenta-
tions. This section introduces the RP to
representative types of still projection equip-
ment and motion picture projection equipment.
Although the specific models of equipment
discussed in this chapter may not necessarily be
available, the principles of operation are the
same for all models.
STILL PICTURE PROJECTORS
Many types of still picture projectors are
available for use with presentations. The more
common of these types include overhead,
opaque, lantern-slide, filmstrip, and 35-mm
projectors. In many instances, the RP will be
required to set up and operate these projectors,
as well as prepare materials for use in them.
Therefore, it is necessary to have a working
knowledge of the operation of the various types
of still picture projectors.
The overhead projector shown in figure 7-5
is used to project images from projectuals which
are transparent and have a colored or opaque
image. A desirable feature of the overhead pro-
jector is that it may be used in a room without
turning off the lights. Additionally, the size of
the projectual is large enough to allow the
instructor to work directly on it while talking.
By writing on clear acetate with a grease pencil,
the instructor can create a projectual while
teaching a class.
The projector can be set up on either side of
the screen. For classroom use, it is normally
located in front of the screen, allowing the
instructor to operate it while instructing the
class. For command briefings, the projector is
usually placed behind the screen so that it offers
no distraction to the audience.
Proper placement of the projector requires
the operator to consider the best possible
arrangement for each situation. Several points
to keep in mind are:
1. The projector should be placed on a table
or stand at such an angle that the projected
image will be nearly a perfect rectangle. Projec-
tors not properly placed will result in an image
that is keystoned (wedge-shaped). In some cases
it may be possible to adjust the angle of the
2. Effort should be taken to ensure that each
member of the audience will be able to see. It
should be kept in mind that the farther the pro-
jector is moved from the screen, the less intense
the projected image will be.
3. Projected images should be viewed with-
out having to shift the eyes over too wide a
range. Seating the audience at a distance no
closer than twice the width of the image will take
care of this requirement.
The location of the projector in relation to
the screen will also affect the manner in which
the projectuals are placed on the device. The
bottoms of the projectuals are always placed so
that they are facing the screen. Front projection,
where the projector is located on the audience
side of the screen, requires the projectuals to be
placed so that they are readable to the operator.
Rear projection, where the projector is located
behind the screen, requires the projectuals to be
placed face down, so that they are unreadable to
Operation of this projector is relatively
simple. It involves nothing more than turning on
the projection lamp, focusing the image, and
positioning the image on the screen.
The projection lamp and blower motor may
be controlled by a three-position switch. The
first ON position provides power to the blower
motor only; the second ON position provides
power to both the projection lamp and the