Learning  Objective:  The  learning  objec- tive  states  what  knowledge  and  skill(s)  the students  should  have  acquired  upon  completion of  the  lesson. Instruction  Time:  The  instruction  time  is the time which is available for the instructor to complete  the  lesson. Instruction   Aids:   The   instructor   should select  the  aids  which  will  be  most  effective  in presenting the skill(s) and knowledge that are to be  gained  in  the  lesson.  Charts,  slide  presenta- tions,  filmstrips,  motion  picture  film,  are  some of  the  aids  which  may  be  used.  The  instructor must take into account, however, the limitations of the instructional aids that are available for use in the lesson. Reference  Material:  A  list  should  be made  of  the  references  from  which  the  lesson material  was  drawn,  such  as,  Unified  Religious Education  Curriculum  for  the  Armed  Forces. Teaching  Method:  The  method  or  com- bination  of  methods  best  suited  to  present  the material  to  be  covered  should  be  selected— discussion,  demonstration,  or  lecture. Motivation:   The   instructor   lists   the method  or  techniques  which  are  to  be  used  to gain  the  interest  and  attention  of  the  students.  In some  instances,  goals  may  be  set,  encouraging remarks  may  be  offered,  honor  roll  or  competi- tion  with  self  and  others  may  be  used  as  the motivating  force. Student  Application:  The  application outlines  the  manner  in  which  the  students  can demonstrate  the  skill  or  ability  they  have acquired  during  the  presentation.  This  affords the instructor an opportunity to observe the per- formance   of   each   individual   and   to   correct errors. Summarization:   The   instructor   briefly o u t l i n e s    t h e    m a t e r i a l    t h a t    h a s    b e e n covered—stressing  the  most  important  steps  or ideas  presented.  The  instructor  answers  ques- tions,  makes  demonstrations,  and  gives  further explanations,    as   needed.   However,   no   new information  should  be  presented  at  this  time. Summarization  is  an  important  part  of  the lesson  as  the  learning  can  be  reinforced  at  this time. AUDIOVISUAL   AIDS Audiovisual  aids  are  defined  as  any  device used  to  aid  in  the  communication  of  an  idea. From  this  definition,  virtually  anything  can  be used  as  an  aid,  providing  it  successfully  com- municates the idea or information for which it is designed.  In  this  chapter,  we  not  only  use  the term  “Audiovisual  Aids”  but  “Instructional Aids,”   “Teaching   Aids,”   “Audio   Aids,”   and “Visual  Aids”  as  well.  An  audiovisual  product is   any   audiovisual   (AV)   item   such   as   still photography,  motion  picture,  audio  or  video tape, slide or filmstrip, that is prepared singly or in  combination  to  communicate  information  or to  elicit  a  desired  audience  response.  Even though  early  aids,  such  as  maps  and  drawings, are still in use, advances in the audiovisual field have opened up new methods of presenting these aids,  such  as  videotapes  and  multimedia  equip- ment  which  allow  more  professional  and  enter- taining  presentations  to  be  presented.  Most  of the  visual  aids  covered  in  this  chapter  can  be grouped  into  the  following  categories—nonpro- jected  aids  and  projected  aids. NONPROJECTED  AIDS Nonprojected  aids  are  those  that  do  not require the use of audiovisual equipment such as a projector and screen. Included in this category are   charts, graphs,   maps,   illustrations, photographs,  brochures,  and  handouts. Charts Charts   are   in   common   use   almost   every- where.  A  chart  is  a  diagram  which  shows  rela- tionships.  An  example  of  a  chart  is  shown  in figure 7-2. The organizational chart is one of the most  widely  used.  This  chart  shows  the  various branches  of  a  particular  organization.  Air  and sea maps that are used for navigation purposes are also charts. 7-4


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