Learning Objective: The learning objec-
tive states what knowledge and skill(s) the
students should have acquired upon completion
of the lesson.
Instruction Time: The instruction time is
the time which is available for the instructor to
complete the lesson.
Instruction Aids: The instructor should
select the aids which will be most effective in
presenting the skill(s) and knowledge that are to
be gained in the lesson. Charts, slide presenta-
tions, filmstrips, motion picture film, are some
of the aids which may be used. The instructor
must take into account, however, the limitations
of the instructional aids that are available for use
in the lesson.
Reference Material: A list should be
made of the references from which the lesson
material was drawn, such as, Unified Religious
Education Curriculum for the Armed Forces.
Teaching Method: The method or com-
bination of methods best suited to present the
material to be covered should be selected
discussion, demonstration, or lecture.
Motivation: The instructor lists the
method or techniques which are to be used to
gain the interest and attention of the students. In
some instances, goals may be set, encouraging
remarks may be offered, honor roll or competi-
tion with self and others may be used as the
Student Application: The application
outlines the manner in which the students can
demonstrate the skill or ability they have
acquired during the presentation. This affords
the instructor an opportunity to observe the per-
formance of each individual and to correct
Summarization: The instructor briefly
o u t l i n e s t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t h a s b e e n
coveredstressing the most important steps or
ideas presented. The instructor answers ques-
tions, makes demonstrations, and gives further
explanations, as needed. However, no new
information should be presented at this time.
Summarization is an important part of the
lesson as the learning can be reinforced at this
Audiovisual aids are defined as any device
used to aid in the communication of an idea.
From this definition, virtually anything can be
used as an aid, providing it successfully com-
municates the idea or information for which it is
designed. In this chapter, we not only use the
term Audiovisual Aids but Instructional
Aids, Teaching Aids, Audio Aids, and
Visual Aids as well. An audiovisual product
is any audiovisual (AV) item such as still
photography, motion picture, audio or video
tape, slide or filmstrip, that is prepared singly or
in combination to communicate information or
to elicit a desired audience response. Even
though early aids, such as maps and drawings,
are still in use, advances in the audiovisual field
have opened up new methods of presenting these
aids, such as videotapes and multimedia equip-
ment which allow more professional and enter-
taining presentations to be presented. Most of
the visual aids covered in this chapter can be
grouped into the following categoriesnonpro-
jected aids and projected aids.
Nonprojected aids are those that do not
require the use of audiovisual equipment such as
a projector and screen. Included in this category
graphs, maps, illustrations,
photographs, brochures, and handouts.
Charts are in common use almost every-
where. A chart is a diagram which shows rela-
tionships. An example of a chart is shown in
figure 7-2. The organizational chart is one of the
most widely used. This chart shows the various
branches of a particular organization. Air and
sea maps that are used for navigation purposes
are also charts.